GEOGRAPHY: Turkey’s landmass is 783,562 square kilometres (302,535 square miles) with 97% in Asia the Anatolian plateau, and 3% in Europe. The European and Asian sides are Divided by Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Turkey enjoys a  variety of climates, changing from the temperate climate of the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal regions.

COASTLINES:Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides:
The Black Sea coastline in Turkey is 1,595 kilometers and the salinity of the sea is 17%.
The Mediterranean coastline runs for 1,577 kilometers .
The Aegean coastline is over 2,800 kilometers long. The coastline faces many islands.
The coastline of the Marmara Sea is over 1,000 kilometers long; it is connected to the Black Sea through the Bosphorus and to the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles.

TIME: Turkish time is GMT +2 hours.

GOVERNMENT: the Turkish Republic is based on secular democratic pluralist and parliamentary system. The country is divided up into 81 provinces (il) for local government.

BOUNDARIES: The land borders of Turkey are 2,949 kilometers in total, and coastlines (including islands) are another 8,333 kilometers. Turkey has two European and six Asian countries for neighbors along its land borders.

The land border to the northeast with Georgia is 276 kilometers long; to the east with Armenia is 328 kilometers long and that with Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan) is 18 kilometers long.

The land border to to the southeast with Iran is 560 kilometers long; to the south with Iraq is 384 kilometers long, and that with Syria is 911 kilometer long, which took its present form in 1939, when the Republic of Hatay joined Turkey. Turkey’s borders on the European continent consist of a 203-kilometer frontier with Greece and a 269-kilometer border with Bulgaria.