HISTORY Turkey is one of the cradles of civilization. The world’s first farmers cultivated wheat and barley in Anatolia around 10,000 BC, Çatal Hüyük near Konya dates back to 7500 BC and may be the world’s first town, the idea of democracy was first developed around 600 BC in Miletus, and the first Christian congregations were formed in Anatolia. In fact, Turkey has such an astoundingly long and rich history that a summary of the various periods’ reads likes a history of humankind.


LANGUAGE, the Turkish language (Türkçe) is neither Indo-European nor Semitic; but belongs to the Ural Altaic groups and has an affinity with the Finno-Hungarian languages. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages, a subgroup of the Turkic language family. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz .

After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and the script reform, the Turkish Language Association (TDK) was established in 1932 under the patronage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the aim of conducting research on Turkish. Turkish is written with Latin characters and is spoken by some 150 million people around the world.